12" Wooden ruler made in U.S.A. of American-grown basswood. Most of the women listed on this ruler were actual rulers, either by accession or by election, of a nation or a nation-state. We allowed ourselves two exceptions. Joan of Arc (1412-1431) lead the French Army at age 18. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962) was never elected to a position, but for five years she chaired the UN Commission on Human Rights. The dates listed are the years of their birth and death, if known. For the three earliest entries, we only know the century in which they lived. Several women on the ruler are still alive. The “head” image is of Elizabeth I of England (1533-1603) who became queen in 1558. Our illustration is based on the Ermine Portrait of 1585, attributed to either Nicholas Hilliard (c.1547-1619) or William Segar (c.1554-1633), and now to be seen at Hatfield House in England.